280 AI My My My! — Ron Spomer Outdoors (2022)

BallisticsCartridgesShooting

Written By Ron Spomer

280 AI My My My! — Ron Spomer Outdoors (1)

As sometimes happens in the world of rifle cartridges, the 280 AI (Ackley Improved) is becoming more popular than its parent, the excellent 280 Remington. Here’s why:

280 AI My My My! — Ron Spomer Outdoors (2)

  • 280 AI shoots 50 fps to 100 fps faster than the 280 Remington with the same bullets in the same standard-length actions.

    (Video) Best 7mm Cartridges: 28, 280, 284

  • 280 Remington chambers can be easily converted to 280 AI.

  • A 280 AI can safely fire 280 Remington ammunition, simultaneously fire-forming brass cases to reloadable 280 AI dimensions.

  • 280 AI was standardized by Nosler in 2008 and, SAAMI approved, is now being sold as factory loaded ammunition.

  • More and more production rifles are being chambered for 280 AI every year.

280 AI My My My! — Ron Spomer Outdoors (3)

Exactly What is the 280 AI?

Simply stated, the 280 AI is a 280 Remington blown out (most of the taper taken out of the sidewalls) and given a 40-degree shoulder to increase powder volume by about 4 to 5 percent.

To set the stage for this cartridge description, you should know that it is but one of more than a dozen commercially loaded 7mm cartridges now on the market that fire .284-inch diameter (28-caliber) bullets. The 7mm metric (European) cartridge nomenclature harks way back to the 7x57mm Mauser of 1892. This original 7mm gave rise to the 30-06 and all subsequent cartridges based on it, but it also inspired a lot of other 7mm rounds.

In the U.S. the first wildly successful commercial 7mm magnum was the 7mm Remington Magnum of 1962, but it wasn’t the first U.S. 7mm. Roy Weatherby’s proprietary 7mm Wby. Mag. actually preceded it by 18 years. That seems early until you learn the 280 Ross, quite popular in Canada and leaking down into the U.S., was a 1906 release. It could push 150-grain bullets about 2,800 fps. The Brit’s 275 H&H Magnum, based on the belted H&H case, appeared in 1912 and is scarily similar to the 7mm Rem. Mag., both driving 160-grain bullets to nearly identical speeds. The German 7x64mm Brenneke began taking game in 1917. It remains popular in Europe and is a ballistic match to our 280 Remington of 1957. The belted 7x61mm Sharpe & Hart Super came out in 1953. Like the (copycat?) 7mm Rem. Mag., it was based on a shortened 300 H&H case.

A Redundant Confusion of 7mm/280 Cartridges

280 AI My My My! — Ron Spomer Outdoors (4)

Despite the above redundant confusion of cartridges shooting .284-inch bullets, that list is not complete. Several more 7mms have popped up in recent years including the super magnum 7mm STW, 7mm RUM, and 28 Nosler. Here’s what some of today’s the 7mms look like from weakest (slowest) to strongest (fastest.) Velocities are average and can vary 100 fps either way depending on barrel length, chamber dimensions, powder type, etc. Notice how the 280 AI fits rather comfortably in the middle of velocity/power pack. This plays a significant role in its rising popularity, as we’ll see.

7x57mm Mauser, 150-grain 2,800 fps

7mm-08 Remington, 150-grain 2,850 fps

284 Winchester, 150-grain 2,850 fps

280 Remington, 150-grain 3,000 fps

7mm SAUM, 150-grain 3,050 fps

280 Ackley Improved, 150-grain 3,100 fps

7mm WSM, 150-grain 3,140 fps

7mm Remington Magnum, 150-grain 3,250 fps

7mm Weatherby Magnum, 150-grain 3,300 fps

7mm STW, 150-grain 3,330 fps

(Video) 7mm PRC: Really? - Season 2: Episode 58

7mm RUM, 150-grain 3,368 fps

28 Nosler, 150-grain 3,400 fps

With So Many Choices, Why the 280 AI?

280 AI My My My! — Ron Spomer Outdoors (5)

Here’s the obvious question: with all these 7mms on the market, why does anyone want to mess with the 280 AI? It adds only about 50-fps to 100-fps to 280 Remington speeds, yet falls short of 7mm Rem. Mag. performance by about the same speeds. Isn’t the 280 AI slicing this ballistic pie a bit thin?

Well, maybe not when you consider its ballistic performance plus a few gun-fit, gun-handling, and handloading issues. Drive Nosler's 150-grain AccuBond Long Range bullet 3,050 fps in a 10 mph wind, zero it for maximum-point-blank-range (10-inch target,) and with a dead-center aim your bullets should stay within that target out to 376 yards. Peak trajectory would be 4.96-inches above point-of-aim at 175 yards. Wind deflection at 400 yards would be about 8.5 inches. That bullet should retain 1,500 f-p energy at 600 yards and remain super sonic at 1,600 yards. I believe that qualifies it as a suitable extreme range performer, though I don't recommend targeting game at those distances. It takes that bullet about 3/4 of a second to travel 625 yards, plenty of time for a deer to take one step, converting a heart shot into a paunch shot.

280 AI My My My! — Ron Spomer Outdoors (6)

Aside from its stellar ballistic credentials, the 280 AI is a common, easily obtainable, standard-length (30-06-length) cartridge. It's also a 30-06 rim-size. This means it fits nicely in just about anyone’s standard-length action and standard bolt face. This gives shooters a lot of options in rifle brands. Any modern, strong bolt-action that can handle a 30-06, 270 Win., 25-06 Rem. 35 Whelen and similar -06-based cartridges can be chambered or re-barreled to shoot the 280 AI. Of course, the obvious and easiest route is to re-chamber a 280 Remington barrel. Any good gunsmith should be able to handle this. You can shoot factory 280 Remington loads in the 280 AI chamber to fire-form cases.

Shaw Custom Barrelssells new barrels in five different contours chambered, crowned, and threaded for your specified action for as little as $160. In 7mm you can specify 1-8” or 1-9.5” twist rates. Given the rising popularity of long, sleek, aerodynamically efficient bullets, I’d go with the 1-8”.Rebarreling is a great option if you already have a “shot-out” barrel on any standard-length action.

280 AI My My My! — Ron Spomer Outdoors (7)

The smaller diameter of the 280 Rem. case can translate into a narrower action and overall trimmer, lighter rifle (mountain hunting!) but this depends on the maker. Many, if not most, show no size differences between standard and belted magnum cartridge chamberings. Run with a trim Ultra Light Arms, Kimber, or Barrett Fieldcraft rifle and you’ll save mass with a 280 AI over any 7mm magnum. Similarly, by shooting a 280 AI instead of 7mm Rem. Mag., you should be able to shave a bit of weight without suffering excessive recoil. Recoil is a product of ejecta mass (powder as well as bullet) and velocity. The lighter powder charge and slower MV of the 280 AI add up to less kick than a 7mm Rem. Mag. flinging the same bullet. How much less? Not a lot, but...

Recoil Levels in 7-pound Rifles

280 AI, 150-grain bullet, 3,100 fps: 26.86 f-p recoil energy, 15.7 fps recoil velocity.

7mm Rem. Mag., 150-grain bullet, 3,248 fps: 29.16 f-p recoil energy, 16.37 fps recoil velocity.

280 AI Handy for Handloading

Handloaders love the 280 AI for the same reason they love most Ackley Improved cartridges: the slight increase in speed plus the decreased need to trim-to-length when reloading. Or so it is claimed. Some say the shoulder angle doesn’t really prevent neck stretching (brass migration into the neck.) Others insist it does. I've not conducted any scientific tests, but I’ve certainly had to do less trimming of my Ackley cartridges than their factory counterparts.

(Video) The 5 Best Cartridges

Handloading the 280 AI is straightforward and easy with a wide variety of medium- to slow-burning powders, but this isn’t a handloading-only cartridge these days. You should be able to find the following factory loads:

Nosler Trophy Grade 140-gr AccuBond 3,150 fps

Nosler 140-gr. Ballistic Tip 3,150 fps

Nosler 150-gr. AccuBond Long Range 2,930 fps

Nosler 140-gr. E-Tip 3,050 fps

Nosler 160-gr. Partition 2,950 fps

Hornady Precision Hunter 162-gr. ELD-X 2,850 fps

Copper Creek Cartridge Co. 168-gr. Berger VLD Hunting 2,950 fps

CCCC 162-gr. Hornady ELD-X 2,970 fps

CCCC 140-gr. Berger VLD Hunting 3,100 fps

CCCC 145-gr. Barnes LRX 3,070 fps

CCCC 150-gr. Hornady ELD-X 3,050 fps

CCCC 140-gr. Nosler AccuBond 3,140 fps

CCCC 160-gr. Nosler AccuBond 2,940 fps

Any 280 AI Negatives?

280 AI My My My! — Ron Spomer Outdoors (8)

Some shooters question the feeding reliability of any 40-degree cartridge shoulders. The rather quick transition from straight cartridge wall to blunt shoulder does suggest potential hang ups on some rifle feed ramps, but I sure haven't experienced this on my Rifles, Inc., which is based on a Remington 700 long action. The rifle is so accurate and the round so effective that I have rarely needed more than one shot per animal. I'm going to work with a Kimber Subalpine in 280 AI this spring and will pay careful attention to any feeding issues with it, but I'm truly not concerned.

They Chamber Rifles in 280 AI, Don’t They?

280 AI My My My! — Ron Spomer Outdoors (9)

My first 280 AI was a 5-pound Rifles, Inc. Strata Stainless built by Lex Webernick. The first 3-shots I fired through it (150-grain Barnes X pushed to 3,040 fps by 58 grains of Reloader 19 if memory serves, but don’t trust this data and always work up your own loads carefully) nestled a 5/16th-inch circle. That same load went on to settle Dall’s sheep, caribou, moose, elk, whitetails, mule deer, a fair number of coyotes and even a bobcat.

Rifles, Inc. is still making great, lightweight hunting rifles, but you can now find factory rifles in 280 AI from Kimber, Nosler, Christiansen Arms, Savage, Cooper Firearms, Montana Rifle, and Fierce. There may be others. The 280 AI is quietly but steadily gaining converts.

280 AI My My My! — Ron Spomer Outdoors (10)

(Video) Did Weatherby REALLY Take Buffalo with the 257? - Season 2: Episode 49

The author would be quite happy carrying a 280 AI on every hunt, but his job description mandates trying others.

Respect Coyotes AND Hunting

BallisticsCartridgesShooting

FAQs

How much recoil does a 280 Ackley Improved have? ›

Recoil in nine-pound rifles would be 15.1, 17.2 and 19.5 ft. -lbs. At 300 yards, the . 280 AI with a 140-grainer delivers about 150 ft.

What caliber is a 280 Ackley Improved? ›

280 Ackley Improved factory ammunition typically shoots 50-150 (usually around 100 fps faster) than most . 280 Remington factory ammo. That might not seem like much, but the . 280 Ackley Improved (also known as the 280 AI, 280 Remington Ackley Improved, or 280 Rem.

Is the 280 Remington a good cartridge? ›

280 Remington holds its own just fine with the new short 7mm magnums, and with good loads is very close to the 7mm Remington Magnum in performance. It cannot do what the fastest 7mms will do, but it burns a lot less powder and performs optimally from a shorter barrel.

How good is the 280 Ackley Improved? ›

280 Ackley Improved results in a 75 to 175 fps velocity advantage over the . 280 Remington, and will nearly equal (and sometimes beat) the velocity of the 7mm Remington Magnum.

Is a 280 Ackley good for elk? ›

In any case, a 280AI is a great choice for elk.

Is a 280 or 270 better? ›

With the same weight of bullet, the . 280 Remington will better the velocity of the . 270 Winchester every time, even if just by a small margin.

What is the effective range of a 280 Remington? ›

280 produces optimum performance with 150 to 162 grain bullets. Deep penetrating projectiles such as the 150 grain Scirocco, 154 grain InterBond or 160 grain Nosler Partition give excellent results on both light and tough medium game out to ranges exceeding 300 yards.

Is 280 same as 7mm? ›

Yes - it is the exact same. The . 280 Remington, is also known as the 7mm-06 Remington and 7mm Express Remington and they all use the same cartridge.

How fast is a 280 bullet? ›

. 280 Remington
Bullet mass/typeVelocityEnergy
120 gr (8 g) SP3,112 ft/s (949 m/s)2,581 ft⋅lbf (3,499 J)
140 gr (9 g) HP2,839 ft/s (865 m/s)2,506 ft⋅lbf (3,398 J)
154 gr (10 g) SP2,825 ft/s (861 m/s)2,730 ft⋅lbf (3,700 J)
168 gr (11 g) HPBT2,723 ft/s (830 m/s)2,767 ft⋅lbf (3,752 J)
1 more row

What is the recoil for a 280 Remington? ›

Deer Load Results
Cartridge/Bullet/BC/SDVelocity (fps)Recoil (ft-lbsf)
.270 Win. 130 gr AB (.435/.242)315818.3
.280 Rem. 140 gr AB (.485/.248)315220.9
.30-06 150 gr AB (.435/.226)305622.2
7mm RM 140 gr AB (.485/.248)334025.7
May 4, 2022

What is the best rifle caliber for all around hunting? ›

Here are the best all-around ammo options for big-game hunters.
  • 6.5 Creedmoor. The 6.5 Creedmoor is one of the most versatile bullets ever built. Ron Spomer. ...
  • 308 Winchester. The author begrudgingly added the .308 to this list. ...
  • 300 Win. Mag. ...
  • 375 H&H. This load is capable of taking down African plains game like this eland.
Jul 22, 2021

Is a 280 Remington good for deer hunting? ›

You can't beat the . 270 Winchester or the . 280 Remington.

What's the difference between 280 Remington and 280 Ackley Improved? ›

270 vs 280 vs 280 Ackley Improved vs 7mm Rem Mag - YouTube

How accurate is the 280 Ackley? ›

Factory . 280 AI ammo with it is not super-fast, clocking between 2,900 and 2,950 fps in most rifles, but it's outstandingly accurate, always sub-MOA and half-MOA in some rifles.

What are the ballistics of a 280 Remington? ›

280 factory loads with a psi of 48,000 to 50,000 for 150 grain bullets. The ballistic performances based off five grain types for velocity are 3,112 ft/s (120 gr), 2,839 ft/s (140 gr), 2,825 ft/s (154 gr), 2,723 ft/s (168 gr), 2,681 ft/s (175 gr).

Can you shoot 7x64 in a 280? ›

280 Remington and 7 x64 are for all practical purposes identical. The 7x64 has about 1 gr more case capacity, not enough to make much difference. I have lots of experience with the . 280 and have always found it to be a capable cartridge.

Who makes a rifle in 280? ›

Remington Sporter . 280 Remington 24" Bolt Action Rifle in Stainless Steel - 60303.

Are 7mm-08 and 280 the same? ›

Looking at the velocity difference between the two cartridges, you'll see the . 280 Remington driving a140-grain bullet at a muzzle velocity between 2950 and 3050 fps, while the 7mm-08 Remington clocks in between 2800 and 2850 fps (Hornady's Superformance being an exception at 2900 fps).

Can a 280 rem shoot 280 AI? ›

280 Remington chambers can be easily converted to 280 AI. A 280 AI can safely fire 280 Remington ammunition, simultaneously fire-forming brass cases to reloadable 280 AI dimensions. 280 AI was standardized by Nosler in 2008 and, SAAMI approved, is now being sold as factory loaded ammunition.

Does tikka make a 280 Ackley Improved? ›

Highland Arms has taken the Tikka T3x stainless, and re-chambered it to our favorite- the . 280 Ackley Improved. The trigger is tuned to 2.5lbs which increases accuracy. Barrels are threaded, and a muzzle brake can be added.

Is a 280 rifle good for deer hunting? ›

It's ideal for whitetails, mule deer, mountain goats, pronghorns, and sheep, and a darn good choice for elk. With good handloads and proper bullets, I'd use the 280 to tackle anything short of Cape buffalo. And I'd hunt those with the 280 Remington if it were legal and someone with a big bore were backing me up.

Who makes 280 Remington ammo? ›

280 Remington Ammunition | 280 Ammo from the Best Brands like Federal, Remington, and Hornady! | Free Shipping Available! The 280 Remington, also known as the 7mm-06 Remington and 7mm Express Remington, is a big-game hunting round.

Is a 280 a short action? ›

In general, cartridges under 2.8″ in overall length are considered short action. Cartridges between 2.8″ and 3.6″ are long action, and cartridges over 3.6″ require a magnum action.

What is the hardest kicking gun? ›

The T-Rex shoots 750-grain bullets at 2,400 fps and churns up over 10,000 foot-pounds of energy.

What Rifle Caliber has the least recoil? ›

If you're looking for one soft-kicking cartridge to do it all—from hunting whitetails to hunting black bear and elk—look no further than the 7mm-08 Remington. The cartridge is based on a . 308 Win.

Which rifle caliber has less recoil? ›

Low-Recoil Hunting Cartridges Test Results
CartridgeMed. Game (yds)Recoil
6.5-284 Norma52515.4
7mm-08 Rem.50015.4
.240 Weath.44014.6
.25-06 Rem.41512.4
6 more rows
Dec 20, 2021

What is the hardest hitting rifle round? ›

A . 475 A&M Magnum cartridge. Shooting this is no worse than being in a plane crash. Its 600-grain bullet leaves the rifle at 2,500 fps, with 8,340 foot-pounds of muzzle energy.

What is the flattest shooting rifle round? ›

The 243 Winchester and 6mm Remington have reputations for shooting flat, but the lesser known 240 Weatherby magnum fires the same bullets at higher velocities, so it's the flattest of the 24-calibers.

What caliber has the least drop at 1000 yards? ›

26 Nosler, the . 28 Nosler, the . 22 Creedmoor, and the 6.5 Weatherby RPM. These cartridges all drop less than 255″ at 1,000 yards.

What caliber is 7x64? ›

The 7×64mm (also unofficially known as the 7×64mm Brenneke, though its designer's name was never officially added as a part of the cartridge name) is a rimless bottlenecked centerfire cartridge developed for hunting.
...
7×64mm
DesignerWilhelm Brenneke
Designed1917
Produced1917 - present
Variants7×65mmR (rimmed)
28 more rows

What are the ballistics of a 25 06? ›

The combination of high ballistic coefficients with high muzzle velocities give the . 25-06 a very flat trajectory as well as retaining kinetic energy down-range. The cartridge is capable of propelling a 117 grain (7.6 g) bullet at up to 3,200 feet per second (980 m/s) and energy levels up to 2,500 ft⋅lbf (3,400 J).

What is a ballistics on a 280 Ackley Improved? ›

280 AI's additional case capacity does good things, but it doesn't change laws of physics. With equal barrel lengths, the Ackley Improved version gets you about 100 additional fps of velocity with a 140-grain bullet and a 24-inch barrel.

When was the .280 AI introduced? ›

Around the same time, gunsmith and wildcatter P.O. Ackley began tinkering with the . 280 Remington, and his wildcat redesign retained enough of a following among hunters and shooters that Nosler introduced the . 280 AI as a factory cartridge—but not until 2007.

What is a 28 Nosler? ›

The .28 Nosler is a 7 mm (.284") caliber, rebated-rim centerfire rifle cartridge designed by Nosler. Introduced in 2015 and approved by SAAMI on January 19, 2015. It is the second cartridge designed by Nosler.

What is Weatherby Vanguard? ›

THE FASTEST, FLATTEST SHOOTING RIFLES on the market, with a number of standard calibers available as well. The modern Vanguard carries a SUB-MOA accuracy guarantee and ships with a crisp two-stage trigger, making it what we feel is the best value in the rifle market today. MONTE CARLO GRIPTONITE® STOCK WITH INSERTS.

What's the difference between 280 Remington and 280 Ackley Improved? ›

270 vs 280 vs 280 Ackley Improved vs 7mm Rem Mag - YouTube

What action is a 280 Ackley Improved? ›

280 Ackley Improved is the steeper 40 degree, which lengthens the case body and allows for about 5 percent more powder capacity. This sharper shoulder can also increase case life, which is a good thing for the handloader.

How much kick does a 6.5 Creedmoor have? ›

CartridgeBulletFree Recoil Energy
308 Win.150-grain27 foot pounds
30-30 Win.150-grain10 foot pounds
270 Win130-grain16 foot pounds
6.5 Creedmoor142-grain12 foot pounds
4 more rows

Why is Ackley Improved? ›

The Ackley Improved family of wildcat cartridges are designed to be easily made by rechambering existing firearms, and fireforming the ammunition to decrease body taper and increase shoulder angle, resulting in a higher case capacity.
...
P.O. Ackley.
Parker Otto Ackley
OccupationGunsmith, author
Known forAmmunition designs
5 more rows

What is the effective range of a 280 Remington? ›

280 produces optimum performance with 150 to 162 grain bullets. Deep penetrating projectiles such as the 150 grain Scirocco, 154 grain InterBond or 160 grain Nosler Partition give excellent results on both light and tough medium game out to ranges exceeding 300 yards.

Is 280 the same as 7mm? ›

Yes - it is the exact same. The . 280 Remington, is also known as the 7mm-06 Remington and 7mm Express Remington and they all use the same cartridge.

Can you shoot 7x64 in a 280? ›

280 Remington and 7 x64 are for all practical purposes identical. The 7x64 has about 1 gr more case capacity, not enough to make much difference. I have lots of experience with the . 280 and have always found it to be a capable cartridge.

How fast is a 280 bullet? ›

. 280 Remington
Bullet mass/typeVelocityEnergy
120 gr (8 g) SP3,112 ft/s (949 m/s)2,581 ft⋅lbf (3,499 J)
140 gr (9 g) HP2,839 ft/s (865 m/s)2,506 ft⋅lbf (3,398 J)
154 gr (10 g) SP2,825 ft/s (861 m/s)2,730 ft⋅lbf (3,700 J)
168 gr (11 g) HPBT2,723 ft/s (830 m/s)2,767 ft⋅lbf (3,752 J)
1 more row

Who makes a 280 rifle? ›

Remington Sporter . 280 Remington 24" Bolt Action Rifle in Stainless Steel - 60303.

Does tikka make a 280 Ackley Improved? ›

Highland Arms has taken the Tikka T3x stainless, and re-chambered it to our favorite- the . 280 Ackley Improved. The trigger is tuned to 2.5lbs which increases accuracy. Barrels are threaded, and a muzzle brake can be added.

What has more knockdown power 270 or 6.5 Creedmoor? ›

25-06, 6.5 Creedmoor, or . 270 at typical hunting ranges. Yes, the . 270 does carry more energy downrange than the other two cartridges.

What is the flattest shooting deer rifle? ›

But what are the flattest shooting rifle cartridges? The flattest-shooting popular rifle cartridge at 1,000 yards is the 6.5-300 Weatherby Magnum, followed by the . 26 Nosler, the . 28 Nosler, the .

What kicks more 270 or 6.5 Creedmoor? ›

270 Winchester is relatively mild compared to other big game hunting cartridges, it still has significantly more recoil energy than the 6.5 Creedmoor. The . 270 kicks back with 17.1 ft-lbs of energy, while the 6.5 Creedmoor has just 9.1 ft-lbs.

How old is Ackley in Catcher in the Rye? ›

Ackley is a senior, eighteen years old. Holden dislikes Ackley's poor personal hygiene. Holden says Ackley has a terrible personality and is a nasty guy.

What is Ackley? ›

In mathematical optimization, the Ackley function is a non-convex function used as a performance test problem for optimization algorithms.

Who invented the 280 Ackley Improved? ›

P.O. Ackley, who designed the . 280 Ackley Improved, was well-known for improving standard factory cartridges by simply opening up a typical SAAMI spec chamber to have less body taper and a much steeper shoulder. This created a larger, more efficient propellant chamber.

Videos

1. Deep Dive On Hunting Cartridges Full Interview With Joseph von Benedikt - Season 2: Episode 48
(Ron Spomer Outdoors - Podcast)
2. The One Cartridge I'd Choose Every Time - Season 2: Episode 36
(Ron Spomer Outdoors - Podcast)
3. Kimber Mountain Ascent 280 Ackley Improved Review
(Bullets4Bucks)
4. What's Wrong with WSM Cartridges - Season 2: Episode 15
(Ron Spomer Outdoors - Podcast)
5. Recoil and Trajectory in 6# Ultra Light Arms 284 Win. Matches 270 Winchester
(Ron Spomer Outdoors)
6. 308 Winchester or 7mm-08 Remington? - Season 2: Episode 221
(Ron Spomer Outdoors - Podcast)

You might also like

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Nicola Considine CPA

Last Updated: 08/01/2022

Views: 6146

Rating: 4.9 / 5 (49 voted)

Reviews: 80% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Nicola Considine CPA

Birthday: 1993-02-26

Address: 3809 Clinton Inlet, East Aleisha, UT 46318-2392

Phone: +2681424145499

Job: Government Technician

Hobby: Calligraphy, Lego building, Worldbuilding, Shooting, Bird watching, Shopping, Cooking

Introduction: My name is Nicola Considine CPA, I am a determined, witty, powerful, brainy, open, smiling, proud person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.