Cesarean section in dogs: indications, techniques (2022)

Acesarean section (hysterotomy) is scheduled or performed on an emergency basis.

Hysterotomies may be scheduled for those bitches that have had previous dystocia or hysterotomy, and for those cases in which dystocia is anticipated (e.g., there is radiographic evidence that one or more of the puppies' skulls is larger than the mother's pelvic canal, such as bitches with pelvic fracture malunions).

Hysterotomy is done on an emergency basis for cases of dystocia refractory to medical management. Fetal putrefaction and maternal toxemia secondary to intrauterine fetal death are less common indications for hysterotomy.

Dogs and cats will continue to produce milk after whelping even if an ovariohysterectomy is performed, as prolactin and cortisol will maintain lactation.

Cesarean section itself does not have a negative impact on fetal survival. Other factors, such as prolonged dystocia ( greater than four hours) result in higher rates of stillbirth and neonatal death.

Anesthetic considerations

Patients who present for dystocia often will be dehydrated, so it is appropriate to fluid-resuscitate them before surgery. Electrolyte abnormalities should be corrected pre-operatively. Every animal must be evaluated for evidence of hypovolemic shock, and treated appropriately if necessary. The vast majority of animals, however, will require only one-third to one-quarter of their shock dose of isotonic crystalloid fluid (15-20 ml/kg), followed by a surgical rate of fluid administration (10 ml/kg/hr crystalloid unless complicating factors are present, such as heart disease or hypoproteinemia).

Nearly all analgesic and anesthetic drugs will cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation. As such, it is important to minimize fetal exposure to cardiovascular depressant drugs by minimizing time from induction to delivery. This can be achieved by performing all pre-surgical preparatory work in advance. The operating suite should be set up with all monitoring equipment at the ready. The patient's IV catheter should be in place and the ventrum should be shaved from 1 cm rostral to the xyphoid to the level of the pubis. A preliminary scrub of the surgical field should be performed before induction of anesthesia.

Anesthesia can safely be induced with diazepam (0.25 mg/kg) and propofol (2-4 mg/kg IV), titrated to effect. The use of diazepam lowers the quantity of propofol required to achieve anesthesia. The patient should then be intubated and maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane, at the lowest level that will maintain light anesthesia. A final surgical scrub is performed before commencing surgery.

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A local anesthetic administered as a line block or via epidural can decrease the amount of inhaled anesthetic needed to keep the patient anesthetized (and therefore decrease the anesthetic load delivered to the puppies).

A line block is easily accomplished by injecting small boluses of 2% lidocaine along the ventral midline from cranial to the umbilicus to cranial to the pubis. A 25g needle is inserted percutaneously into the linea alba (taking care not to penetrate the abdominal wall and accidentally pierce the uterus) cranial to the umbilicus, and a bleb of anesthetic is injected as the needle is being withdrawn. Before injecting the anesthetic, aspirate back on the syringe to ensure that there is negative pressure and that a blood vessel has not inadvertently been entered. Repeat the process a few millimeters caudal, and for the remainder of the proposed incision (Photo 1).

Photo 1: A line block is easy to perform, and may reduce inhalant anesthetic requirements. Small boluses of 2% lidocaine are injected along the ventral midline from cranial to the umbilicus to cranial to the pubis. A 25g needle is inserted percutaneously into the linea alba. Aspirate back on the syringe to ensure that there is negative pressure and that a blood vessel has not inadvertently been entered. A bleb of anesthetic is injected as the needle is being withdrawn. Repeat process a few millimeters caudal, and for the remainder of the incision.

Alternatively, a lidocaine local anesthetic can be used after the surgery, but before complete closure of the abdominal incision (after the linea alba has been apposed). A 25g needle and syringe are handed to the surgeon in a sterile manner, and 1-2 mg/kg of 2% lidocaine are drawn into the syringe. Starting at the midline of the skin incision, inject a small amount of solution in a fan-like manner, infusing at all tissue layers from the dermis to the peritoneum. Remove the needle, and repeat a small distance away (1-2 cm). Always aspirate before injecting local anesthesia to prevent accidental intravenous administration.

Cats are much more sensitive than dogs to the toxic effects of lidocaine, so particular attention must be paid to the dose and route administered (not to exceed 2 mg/kg if used locally; 1 mg/kg if given intravenously).

If there is evidence of fetal distress (i.e., fetal heart rates drop below 180 beats/min, confirmed with ultrasound or Doppler), the local anesthetic should be performed after the hysterotomy.

Technique

There must be two teams present at every hysterotomy: one team to perform the surgery and monitor the anesthetized mother, the other to receive and resuscitate the babies.

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Due to the deleterious effects of anesthesia on the fetus(es), speed and precision are paramount to achieving a good surgical outcome. The patient is positioned in dorsal recumbency with restraints placed on all limbs. A ventral midline laparotomy is made from the umbilicus to just cranial to the pubis. The linea alba should be elevated before incising it to avoid accidental penetration of the uterine wall. One gravid uterine horn and the uterine body are exteriorized.

The gravid uterus must be handled gently and with minimal traction to avoid avulsing the uterine vessels or tearing the uterine wall. The abdominal cavity is protected from spillage of uterine contents with moistened laparotomy pads placed under and around the uterus. A stab incision is made in the ventral aspect of the uterine body, and extended with Metzenbaum scissors.

This incision should be large enough to fit each puppy through without tearing of the wall. (Photo 2) The puppies are then "milked" out of the hysterotomy, from cranial to caudal. Each puppy should still be in its amniotic sac, and its placenta may be attached to the uterine wall. It is important to detach the placenta with gentle caudal traction, so as not to rupture any of the many blood vessels located superficially in the uterine wall (Photo 3). If the placenta does not detach readily, it is left in place until the end of the procedure. Each puppy is handed off to the recovery team as it is delivered (see, Addressing the puppies).

When all the puppies are removed from the first horn, it is replaced into the abdomen and the other exteriorized. The puppies are then removed from the second horn via the same uterine body incision. Palpate the pelvic canal to ensure that no puppies remain at that site. When all the puppies have been removed and before closing the hysterotomy, any remaining placentas are removed. It is preferable that the number of placentas removed equal the number of pups. Otherwise, complications associated with retained fetal membranes can later arise, such as acute metritis. (It is possible that they would pass naturally, but the incidence of complications related to retained placenta following hysterotomy is not known.)

Once all the puppies are out, the anesthetic gas can be increased. If not previously administered, an opioid may be given at this point. The uterus should begin to contract once all the fetuses have been removed. If it does not, oxytocin is administered IM or IV (dogs: 1-5 units; cats: 0.5-2 units).

A variety of techniques have been employed to close the hysterotomy, and all seem equally efficacious (Photo 4). It can be closed in one or two layers, with either interrupted or continuous-suture patterns. A two-layer closure entails an appositional closure of the mucosa and submucosa, followed by an appositional or inverting pattern in the seromuscular layers.

Employ a synthetic monofilament absorbable suture [such as 3-0 or 4-0 polydioxanone (PDS), polyglyconate (Maxon) or poliglecaprone 25 (Monocryl)] with a taper needle. Local lavage is generally sufficient, unless gross contamination of the abdomen with uterine contents has occurred. If this is the case, the laparotomy pads are removed and the peritoneal cavity is copiously lavaged with warm, 0.9% saline. At this point it is appropriate to change contaminated gloves and instruments. It will now be easy to identify and arrest any persistent hemorrhage, such as from a traumatized uterine vessel. Inspect the other abdominal organs for evidence of disease or injury. Finally, the omentum should be drawn over the ventral aspect of the uterus.

If the owners do not plan future breedings, an ovariohysterectomy can be performed after hysterotomy. Alternatively, an en bloc ovariohysterectomy can be performed, with the puppies removed from the uterus by the recovery team.

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The abdominal wall is closed routinely in three layers (rectus sheath, subcutaneous tissue and skin), using local anesthetic if not previously performed. It is preferential to close the skin with a subcuticular suture pattern with a synthetic absorbable monofilament suture material (such as Monocryl).

External skin sutures are a source of irritation for the mother and the puppies, and puppies will frequently suckle or scratch at them, increasing the chance of incisional irritation or infection. This also obviates the need to remove the sutures at some point in the future.

Addressing the puppies

Each pup is handed off to an assistant, generally with the amniotic sac and placenta still attached. The amniotic sac is ruptured and peeled away from the puppy. The umbilicus is clamped with a mosquito hemostat and transected. The puppy is rubbed vigorously, both to dry it off and to stimulate breathing. The nares and nasopharynx are gently suctioned with a bulb syringe to remove residual amniotic fluid.

If the puppy is not breathing spontaneously, or if the heart rate is low (<180 bpm), doxapram is administered sublingually (one drop per puppy). If opioids have been administered to the bitch prior to delivery, they should be antagonized with a drop of naloxone, sublingually. If this does not stimulate respiration, epinephrine is administered, also one drop sublingually. Flow-by oxygen is administered if the puppy is cyanotic and/or brachypneic.

For orally administered mediations to achieve any effect, there must be adequate perfusion of the oral mucosa. If the heart rate is low or absent, compression of the thoracic wall is performed; mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration may be necessary.

Once the puppy is stable, the umbilicus can be ligated with a single, encircling ligature of absorbable suture material. The umbilical stump is disinfected with povidone-iodine solution. The puppy is examined for evidence of birth defects (such as cleft palate, umbilical hernia, atresia ani or limb deformities) and placed in an incubator set at 90 degrees to 95 degrees.

The puppies are introduced to the mother only after she has completely recovered from anesthesia, to minimize the risk of her traumatizing them. The bitch and litter should be discharged from the hospital as soon as they are stable. This will minimize the chance of nosocomial infection, and will minimize the stress on the bitch, thereby increasing the likelihood of her engaging in appropriate mothering behavior.

Antibiotic use

Antibiotics generally are not necessary for hysterotomies. Exceptions include cases of fetal putrefaction, uterine infection and gross contamination of the peritoneal cavity with uterine contents. If fetal putrefaction or uterine infection is suspected, a broad-spectrum antibiotic (such as cefazolin, 22 mg/kg IV) should be administered pre-operatively. Post-operative antibiotic therapy is only warranted if there has been gross contamination during surgery.

(Video) Common soft tissue surgical procedures in the dog and cat

Complications

For healthy bitches and puppies undergoing hysterotomy, reported neonatal survival rates are 70 percent to 90 percent. The rates are considerably lower if the mother is in poor condition or has undergone a prolonged dystocia pre-operatively. Maternal mortality rates are reportedly 0 to 2 percent in dogs and cats.

Intra-operative endometrial hemorrhage is possible, especially at sites of placental attachment. If this occurs, administer oxytocin and apply pressure. If bleeding is profuse and intractable, ovariohysterectomy should be recommended.

Potential post-operative complications include persistent hemorrhage, pyometra, mastitis, wound infection and peritonitis.

See description of technique in Toombs, JP and Clarke, KM: Basic Operative Techniques. In Slatter, DH (ed): Textbook of Small Animal Surgery. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 2003, p. 215.

Jill Sammarco, BVSc, MRCVS, Diplomate ACVS, joined Red Bank Veterinary Hospital (NJ) in 2003. She completed a residency in surgery at the University of Pennsylvania in 1995 and is a veterinary graduate of the University of Liverpool in England.

Jill Sammarco

S. Anthony Kahn, DVM, graduated from Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine in 2004. He completed an internship in small-animal medicine & surgery at The Animal Medical Center in 2005 and an internship in small-animal surgery at the Veterinary Referral and Emergency Center in 2006. Dr. Kahn is now a first-year resident in surgery at Red Bank Veterinary Hospital (NJ).

Anthony Kahn

(Video) Cushing and Connell Suture Patterns

FAQs

What are the indications for cesarean section? ›

The most common indications for primary cesarean delivery include, in order of frequency, labor dystocia, abnormal or indeterminate (formerly, nonreassuring) fetal heart rate tracing, fetal malpresentation, multiple gestation, and suspected fetal macrosomia.

What is cesarean without indication? ›

Cesarean delivery on maternal request is defined as a primary cesarean delivery on maternal request in the absence of any maternal or fetal indications. Cesarean delivery rates in the United States are at the highest levels ever, with more than 1.3 million cesarean deliveries (32% of all births) performed in 2015 1.

What are 4 reasons why a cesarean section might be performed? ›

Below are some of the most common medical reasons for a cesarean.
  • Prolonged labor. ...
  • Abnormal positioning. ...
  • Fetal distress. ...
  • Birth defects. ...
  • Repeat cesarean. ...
  • Chronic health condition. ...
  • Cord prolapse. ...
  • Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD)

What is the most common reason for performing a cesarean section? ›

Labor that isn't progressing (labor dystocia) is one of the most common reasons for a C-section. Issues with labor progression include prolonged first stage (prolonged dilation or opening of the cervix) or prolonged second stage (prolonged time of pushing after complete cervical dilation).

What are the two types of cesarean section? ›

There are two types of caesarean section, which differ according to the direction of the incision on the abdomen. These are the classical cut and the bikini cut. The bikini cut is more popular because it heals and looks better, and causes less pain after surgery.

How do you take care of a dog in CS GO? ›

You should offer her small amounts of food and water frequently (every 15 to 30 minutes) for the first 24 hours after surgery. If she eats or drinks too much or too quickly, she may vomit. Her food intake at this time should be about one-and-a half times her normal food intake.

How long does it take for oxytocin to work in dogs? ›

Uterine contractions should begin within 10-15 minutes after giving oxytocin.

Can a dog give birth at 60 days? ›

Depending on the breed, pregnancy can range from 56 to 69 days, with smaller dogs generally giving birth slightly earlier.

What is true CPD? ›

With true CPD, there is a mismatch in size between the mother's pelvis and the baby's head. This is either due to the baby being especially large or the mother's pelvis being especially small. The medical term for when the fetus is overly large is fetal macrosomia.

What is the ICD 10 code for cesarean delivery? ›

Single liveborn infant, delivered by cesarean

Z38. 01 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. The 2022 edition of ICD-10-CM Z38. 01 became effective on October 1, 2021.

What are the complications of CS? ›

Some of the main risks to you of having a caesarean include:
  • infection of the wound (common) – causing redness, swelling, increasing pain and discharge from the wound.
  • infection of the womb lining (common) – symptoms include a fever, tummy pain, abnormal vaginal discharge and heavy vaginal bleeding.

How many types of cesarean sections are there? ›

The 2 types of cuts that can be used when you have a caesarean section are: A lower segment incision – will be used wherever possible. This is a horizontal (across) cut through the abdomen (stomach) and a horizontal cut through the lower part of the uterus, sometimes known as a 'bikini line' incision.

What are the 3 stages of labor? ›

There are three stages of labour. The first stage is when your cervix is opening and your baby is moving down the birth canal. The second stage is when your baby is being born and the third stage is when the placenta is delivered. Understanding the stages of birth can help you know what is happening during your labour.

When should a cesarean be done? ›

This is why it's important to wait until at least 39 weeks for a scheduled c-section. If your pregnancy is healthy, it's best to let labor begin on its own. If your provider talks to you about scheduling a c-section, ask if you can wait until at least 39 weeks to have your baby.

What is the reason of cesarean delivery? ›

A cesarean delivery is typically performed when complications from pregnancy make traditional vaginal birth difficult, or put the mother or child at risk. Sometimes cesarean deliveries are planned early in the pregnancy, but they're most often performed when complications arise during labor.

What is the disadvantage of C-section? ›

C-sections do come with risks as with any major surgery for example infections in the wound itself. You will also have a longer recovery period and breast feeding may not be possible straight away. You may not be able to have skin to skin contact straight away which can impact on the bonding process.

What are the three main types of cesarean operations that can be performed? ›

There are three standard uterine incisions that can be performed for delivery of the fetus: low transverse, low vertical, and classical (Fig.

What are the 7 layers of C-section? ›

The seven layers are the skin, fat, rectus sheath (medical term for the coating outside the abs), the rectus (abs, which are split along the grain somewhat more than cut), the parietal peritoneum (first layer surrounding the organs), the loose peritoneum and then the uterus, which is a very thick muscular layer.

What is a Category 3 C-section? ›

Category 3 caesarean sections are non-urgent and carried out at a time that has not been previously organised, so in a sense, they are still classed as an emergency. Category 4 is a planned caesarean that happens at a pre-organised time. There is no urgency.

How do you clean a dog's c-section wound? ›

Whilst at home keep the skin wound clean and dry by bathing with plain warm water as needed in first 48 hours after your caesarean. Avoid using cotton wool balls as this can get caught along the sutures, gauze swabs are recommended.

Can puppies nurse after c-section? ›

Hello there. If your dog has a c-section the puppies can nurse off of her just like if Lily gave birth to them naturally. You do not have to bottle feed the puppies as long as Lily produces enough milk to keep them fed and growing.

How long does a dog c-section operation take? ›

How Long Does the Canine Cesarean Section (C-Section) Take to Perform? The procedure takes about 45 minutes to one hour to perform in most cases, including the needed time for preparation and anesthesia. In obese animals or animals with large litters, the procedure can take longer and may require two surgeons.

What happens if you give a dog too much oxytocin? ›

Oxytocin should only be used if the cervix is dilated. Oxytocin should not be used if an animal has uncorrected low blood sugar or untreated low blood calcium. If inappropriately used, oxytocin can cause uterine rupture or pain from excessive uterine cramping.

How many mL of oxytocin can I give my dog? ›

Dosage and Administration
AnimalDose
Cattle and Horses5.0 mL
Sows and Ewes1.5 to 2.5 mL
Dogs and Cats0.25 to 2.5 mL

Does petting a dog release oxytocin? ›

Research has shown that simply petting a dog lowers the stress hormone cortisol , while the social interaction between people and their dogs actually increases levels of the feel-good hormone oxytocin (the same hormone that bonds mothers to babies).

Can puppies survive if born at 57 days? ›

Generally, puppies are classified as preemies if they are born under 58 days. Preterm puppies have little chance of survival and more often than not, require human intervention for care and feeding.

Why is my dog not pushing her puppies out? ›

If your mother dog goes through stage one of labor and has not begun pushing after 24 hours, she may be experiencing uterine inertia. This is more common in some breeds, when the litter is very small or very large, or there is a calcium deficiency. Overweight mother dogs can be prone to uterine inertia.

How can I help my dog give birth faster? ›

When everything appears to be in place for a normal healthy birth, he may inject her with a dose of oxytocin. Dosages range from 2 to 20 units, which the vet can administer in 30-minute intervals. This drug will help to speed up and increase the strength of her contractions to facilitate the birthing process.

Why oxytocin is contraindicated in CPD? ›

Oxytocin is contraindicated in any of the following instances: significant cephalopelvic disproportion; unfavorable fetal positions or presentations which are undeliverable without conversion prior to delivery, that is, transverse lies; obstetrical emergencies where the benefit-to-risk ratio for either the fetus or the ...

How do you identify cephalopelvic disproportion? ›

A physical examination that measures pelvic size can often be the most accurate method for diagnosing CPD. If a true diagnosis of CPD cannot be made, oxytocin is often administered to help labor progression. Alternatively, the fetal position is changed.

What is the McRoberts position? ›

McRoberts' position is used during the second stage of labour to facilitate delivery of the fetal shoulders. Few clinical studies have been done to measure its efficacy. We measured intrauterine pressure in 22 women in term labour, after the vertex reached 3+ station, in the dorsal lithotomy position.

What increases risk of C-section? ›

The following predictors were found to be significantly associated with increased risk of cesarean section: a) advancing age (above the age of 25 years, OR=1.42; p=0.03), b) prior cesarean section (previous cesarean section=1, OR=22.71; p=0.001), c) increased body mass index (obesity, OR=2.11; p=0.07), d) extremes of ...

What is repeat cesarean? ›

After a primary cesarean birth, individuals who become pregnant again must decide between undergoing a repeat cesarean or a trial of labor. Issues specific to repeat cesarean birth will be discussed here.

Does walking prevent C-section? ›

Does Walking and Exercise Prevent C-Sections? According to a study published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, women who participated in moderate exercise during pregnancy were 34% less likely to have a cesarean delivery than their non-exercising counterparts.

What is the ICD 9 code for cesarean delivery? ›

ICD-9 Code 669.7 -Cesarean delivery without mention of indication- Codify by AAPC.

What is the ICD 10 code for history of cesarean section? ›

When coding a previous or current cesarean-section (C-section) scar, Z98. 891 History of uterine scar from previous surgery is appropriate when the mother is receiving antepartum care and has had a previous C-section delivery with no abnormalities.

What are the danger signs after C-section? ›

When to Call Your Doctor After a Cesarean Section
  • High or Persistent Fever.
  • Abnormal Wound Drainage.
  • Worsening or Persistent Pain.
  • Breathing Difficulty.
  • Excessive Vaginal Bleeding.
Jun 14, 2021

What is the most common complication of cesarean section? ›

Hemorrhage. Hemorrhage is the most frequent complication of the cesarean section during or after the surgical event. However, there is no consensus on the actual incidence, worldwide; it is estimated that around 75% of obstetric hemorrhages occur in cesarean section.

What are the indications of cesarean section? ›

The most common indications for primary cesarean delivery include, in order of frequency, labor dystocia, abnormal or indeterminate (formerly, nonreassuring) fetal heart rate tracing, fetal malpresentation, multiple gestation, and suspected fetal macrosomia.

How is cesarean performed? ›

A C-section includes an abdominal incision and a uterine incision. The abdominal incision is made first. It's either a vertical incision between your navel and pubic hair (left) or, more commonly, a horizontal incision lower on your abdomen (right).

What are the indications of lower segment cesarean section? ›

Absolute indications are cephalopelvic disproportion, placenta previa, abruptio placentae, transverse lie, triplet pregnancy, mechanical obstruction of vaginal birth (large uterine myoma or ovarian tumor), prolapsed umbilical cord, vasa previa, human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnancy, and other conditions.

What is the 5 1 1 rule of labor? ›

The 5-1-1 Rule: The contractions come every 5 minutes, lasting 1 minute each, for at least 1 hour. Fluids and other signs: You might notice amniotic fluid from the sac that holds the baby. This doesn't always mean you're in labor, but could mean it's coming.

What are the 7 mechanisms of labor? ›

Anglo-American literature lists 7 cardinal movements, namely engagement, descent, flexion, internal rotation, extension, external rotation, and expulsion.

What is prodromal labor? ›

In a prodromal labor, the early phase of labor (cervix dilates from closed to approximately three-to-four centimeters) is prolonged with contractions that do not increase in intensity. Prodromal labor can tire you out and use up the energy you'll need for active labor and delivery.

Which of the following would be an indication for a cesarean birth Select all that apply *? ›

The most common indications for primary cesarean delivery include labor dystocia, abnormal or indeterminate fetal heart rate tracing, fetal malpresentation, multiple gestation, and suspected fetal macrosomia.

Which week is best for cesarean delivery? ›

You will usually have a planned c-section at 39 weeks of pregnancy. The aim is to do the c-section before you go into labour. Babies born earlier than 39 weeks are more likely to need help with their breathing. Sometimes there's a medical reason for delivering the baby earlier than this.

What are the complications of CS? ›

Some of the main risks to you of having a caesarean include:
  • infection of the wound (common) – causing redness, swelling, increasing pain and discharge from the wound.
  • infection of the womb lining (common) – symptoms include a fever, tummy pain, abnormal vaginal discharge and heavy vaginal bleeding.

Is C-section better than normal delivery? ›

Cesarean is often safer than vaginal delivery in case of the danger posed to the mother or baby due to a medical condition and reduces the death rate and illnesses in the mother and baby. Deliveries can be scheduled according to the convenience of the mother (even for relatives).

Which of the following is a medical indication for a cesarean birth quizlet? ›

Late decelerations combined with minimal variability in the fetal heart rate reflect fetal intolerance of labor and are an indication for cesarean birth.

How do you assist for a cesarean section? ›

Methods to assist with delivery include vacuum or forceps extraction or manual delivery utilising fundal pressure. Medication that relaxes the uterus (tocolytic medication) may facilitate the birth of the baby at caesarean section.

How is cesarean scheduled? ›

If you have medical conditions that affect your pregnancy, you may need a c-section to protect the health of your baby. A c-section may be planned (also called scheduled). This means you and your health care provider decide when to schedule the c-section based on your health condition and the condition of your baby.

How many layers are cut during C-section? ›

Once the baby is delivered the uterus is closed with a double layer of stitching. Four of the five remaining layers are stitched with a single layer of stitching, but one layer is not restitched as it heals better – with no buckling and reduced chance of scar tissue developing, without restitiching.

Is cesarean painful? ›

You won't feel any pain during the C-section, although you may feel sensations like pulling and pressure. Most women are awake and simply numbed from the waist down using regional anesthesia (an epidural and/or a spinal block) during a C-section. That way, they are awake to see and hear their baby being born.

What are the three common complications of cesarean section? ›

Some possible complications of cesarean deliveries are as follows:
  • postsurgery infection or fever.
  • too much blood loss.
  • injury to organs.
  • emergency hysterectomy.
  • blood clot.
  • reaction to medication or anesthesia.
  • emotional difficulties.
  • scar tissue and difficulty with future deliveries.

What are the danger signs after C-section? ›

When to Call Your Doctor After a Cesarean Section
  • High or Persistent Fever.
  • Abnormal Wound Drainage.
  • Worsening or Persistent Pain.
  • Breathing Difficulty.
  • Excessive Vaginal Bleeding.
Jun 14, 2021

What is the most common complication of cesarean section? ›

Hemorrhage. Hemorrhage is the most frequent complication of the cesarean section during or after the surgical event. However, there is no consensus on the actual incidence, worldwide; it is estimated that around 75% of obstetric hemorrhages occur in cesarean section.

Hysterotomies may be scheduled for those bitches that have had previous dystocia or hysterotomy, and for those cases in which dystocia is anticipated (e.g., there is radiographic evidence that one or more of the puppies' skulls is larger than the mother's pelvic canal, such as bitches with pelvic fracture malunions).. Due to the deleterious effects of anesthesia on the fetus(es), speed and precision are paramount to achieving a good surgical outcome.. A ventral midline laparotomy is made from the umbilicus to just cranial to the pubis.. The puppies are then removed from the second horn via the same uterine body incision.. When all the puppies have been removed and before closing the hysterotomy, any remaining placentas are removed.. If the puppy is not breathing spontaneously, or if the heart rate is low (<180 bpm), doxapram is administered sublingually (one drop per puppy).

You might be asking, “Is a cesarean section for a dog natural, then?” Most commonly, your dog will be able to give birth without any surgical intervention.. In the case of an emergency or long-lasting labor, a cesarean section might be the best and most effective option in saving both your dog and their puppies.. In order to help keep you informed of all your dog’s needs, we’ve composed a catalog of some specific reasons for why your dog may have to have a cesarean section; all of which are due to an emergency or if they can be planned ahead of time.. If you find out your dog has to have a cesarean section with enough time to prepare ahead, there is much that can help ensure your dog is both comfortable and the recovery time is well-planned .. Whelping area Rectal and room thermometer Heating device Puppy scale Tincture of iodine for umbilical cord care Feeding tube Supplies to record puppy weight or any odd behavior Medi-nurser baby bottle Puppy safe marking systems Disinfectant (for the whelping box) Bulb syringe. If your dog is unable to birth the puppies naturally, a c-section is a route your veterinarian may go in order to ensure the safety and health of the mother and her puppies.. In addition, if a c-section is planned ahead and scheduled with a local veterinarian, the cost will commonly be less than if you had to have a c-section due to an emergency medical issue then you will have to go to an e. There may also be extra costs added to the surgery if there are complications, additional techniques and procedures needed, or unsuspecting emergency necessities.. If you know ahead of time that your dog will require a c-section, it can be helpful to call around to clinics and get quotes for your dog and the number of puppies she has.. A c-section in dogs is a commonly performed procedure if the dog is unable to give a natural birth or has complications.. As the nurses are there to ensure the puppies are breathing and doing well, the surgeons can continue to remove the uterus, puppies, and clamp/cut the umbilical cords.. As your dog and her puppies continue to recover and grow, there will be a follow-up appointment needed with your veterinarian.

A cesarean (C-section) is a surgical procedure in which unborn puppies are surgically removed from the mother dog’s uterus.. The mother must be carefully anesthetized in order to perform surgery safely while minimally affecting the unborn puppies.. The surgery is performed through an incision in the dog’s abdomen and the surviving puppies are allowed to nurse normally as soon as the mother is out of surgery.. In many cases, the veterinarian will recommend spaying of the mother while removing the fetuses in order to prevent future dystocia, pyometra and other uterine diseases.. Radiographs (x-rays) of the abdomen are frequently performed to evaluate the number and size of the remaining fetuses, the size and shape of the mother’s pelvis in relation to the puppies, and may indicate whether the puppies are viable (still alive).. Medical therapy is often attempted before surgery to help the mother deliver the puppies.. The anesthetic drugs that are used must be carefully selected so as to perform major abdominal surgery adequately and safely on the mother while minimally depressing the puppies.

Much more often, the veterinarian has to deal with lathered owners who, in the middle of the night, bring in an exhausted, wheezing dog with a puppy firmly stuck in the birth canal.. Simply put, if a young dog has a lot of puppies, and even large ones, it would be better to immediately use a caesarean section.. In some dogs, there are also abnormalities in the structure of the pelvis, as a result of which the birth canal is very narrow, the passage of puppies through them is simply impossible.. In order to find out about this in time, you need to take the dog to the clinic approximately on the 50th or 55th day of the dog's pregnancy.. A dog is not a person; the process of childbirth in dogs is much easier.. So can a dog give birth on its own after a caesarean section?. So, if a dog after a caesarean section often breathes in the first day or two, this is a completely normal reaction of the organism departing from general anesthesia.

This paper by Pottie et al (2007) examines the effects of hypothermia on recovery from general anaesthesia in the dog.. The sedation of cats prior to cardiac examination requires a drug protocol that has minimal effects on the cardiovascular system.. This study by Okushima et al examined the effects of alfaxalone versus propofol on heart rate at the time of induction of anaesthesia.. In this article Claire Roberts, RVN and owner of SynergyCPD, examines the physiology, monitoring and management of blood pressure in anaesthetised patients.. In this summary of a study by Miller et al (2019) we examine if there are any benefits to an alfaxalone/midazolam induction over alfaxalone alone in the healthy dog.. In this article Matt Gurney, RCVS/ECVS specialist in Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, examines whether co-induction techniques are advantageous.. In this article Matt Gurney discusses the induction of anaesthesia and intubation of the brachycephalic patient.. It can be administered for analgesia of moderate to severe pain in dogs and cats, to provide neuroleptanalgesia, and as part of a patient’s premedication protocol prior to general anaesthesia.. In this summary of acute pain assessment, Carl Bradbrook examines why we should be monitoring patients for pain and looks at the commonly used scoring systems.. This paper examined whether a benzodiazepine, administered as a co-induction agent with alfaxalone, improved endotracheal intubation, and reduced the dose of alfaxalone, in the dog. In this article, Dan takes us through the common monitoring techniques that provide information about the cardiovascular status of your patient.. This recent retrospective study looks at the cases of 185 pet rabbits admitted for sedation or general anaesthetic and evaluates the incidence and risk factors contributing to peri-anaesthetic mortality and gastrointestinal complications.

In this article Matt Gurney, RCVS and European specialist in Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, discusses some useful protocols for the IM administration of alfaxalone in cats, and describes when and why this drug may prove valuable.. This study by Okushima et al examined the effects of alfaxalone versus propofol on heart rate at the time of induction of anaesthesia.. In this article Karen Heskin, Veterinary Technical Manager for Jurox UK, and Carl Bradbrook, RCVS & European Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia Specialist and President of the Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists, discuss the three most commonly used intravenous induction agents for cats, dogs and pet rabbits in the UK.. In this article Claire Roberts, RVN and owner of SynergyCPD, examines the physiology, monitoring and management of blood pressure in anaesthetised patients.. In this article Matt Gurney, RCVS/ECVS specialist in Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, examines whether co-induction techniques are advantageous.. This article summarises and combines "Anaesthesia for the geriatric patient" and "What should we consider when anaesthetising patients, including geriatrics, for dental procedures?". In this article Ian Self, Associate Professor in Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, Nottingham, reflects on the recognition, assessment and management options for chronic pain in companion animals. In this article Carl Bradbrook examines the management of anaesthesia in geriatrics... In this article Matt Gurney discusses the induction of anaesthesia and intubation of the brachycephalic patient.. It can be administered for analgesia of moderate to severe pain in dogs and cats, to provide neuroleptanalgesia, and as part of a patient’s premedication protocol prior to general anaesthesia.. In this article we have identified the key clinical peer reviewed papers to support the use of Alfaxan for maintenance of Anaesthesia in Cats and Dogs.. In this article the Jurox UK Technical Team discuss the use of intravenous agents to maintain anaesthesia in the dog and cat.. In this article Karen examines why we fast our canine and feline patients prior to anaesthesia and what the current recommendations are.

The catheter becomes a veritable lifeline for rapid correction of a precipitous drop in blood pressure which can often occur after the rapid delivery of puppies and the accompanying loss of a large volume of fluid in a short amount of time.. A caesarian section surgery, with its rapid, obligatory changes in the patient's circulating fluid volume and blood pressure, demands careful attention to be paid to the patient's vital signs.. After induction and prior to delivery of the first puppy, the patient is pre-loaded with warm, sterile colloidal fluids such as hetastarch at a dose of 1 ml per 10 pounds of body weight intravenously.. Midhorn hysterotomy placement facilitates rapid removal of puppies and avoids a lengthy "milking" process for puppies located in the tip of each uterine horn.. As each puppy is removed from the uterus, the surgeon tears the fetal membranes overlying the puppy's head and wipes the muzzle removing membranes and amniotic fluid from the nostrils and lips.. The puppies are placed in a warm environment and are monitored continuously by assistants until the doctor has completed surgery on the dam and can perform an examination on each puppy.. When the puppies are first placed with the dam, an effort is made to get each puppy attached to a nipple and nursing effectively.. When puppies are born by Caesarian section delivery, it often takes dams up to 3 days to "decide" that the puppies are not squeak toys, prey items or little aliens.. The dam's mothering duties include being able to lactate and provide nutrition to her puppies, to maintain the body temperature of the puppies who are themselves, unable to thermoregulate, and to stimulate elimination of urine and feces in the puppies.. Good preparation of the dam, correct selection of the anesthetic protocol, efficient surgical procedure, rapid delivery of puppies, rapid recovery of the dam and adequate neonatal care are the keys to success.

A caesarean section is a major surgery to remove puppies from the uterus of the mother dog.. The mother will still be able to successfully nurse and raise the puppies, even if spayed immediately after the puppies have been removed from the uterus.. Complete recovery from anesthesia may take 2-3 hours, depending on the anesthetics used, her physical condition at the time of surgery and her age.. Removal should occur at 10-14 days after surgery.. She can nurse her puppies even though she has stitches.. Although the mother may not be awake enough to handle the nursing alone, it is still possible for you to assist the process by making her lie still and reassuring her so the puppies can nurse.. If you are not comfortable with the way the litter is doing, the puppies and the mother should be examined by a veterinarian.. If the mother does not have any milk at first, you may supplement the puppies for the first day or two.. Weaning should begin when the puppies are about 3-4 weeks old.

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