The Quest for a Heart Attack Cure (2022)

Credit: iStock/nmlfd

Heart Health

A BU-led team is engineering small patches of cardiac muscle that could repair the heart, treat heart disease, and speed drug development

May 31, 2022

  • David Levin

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(Video) What happens during a heart attack? - Krishna Sudhir

Heart disease is one of the world’s most deadly and insidious killers. In the United States alone, it causes one in every four deaths nationwide—that’s a staggering 659,000 people each year, or roughly equivalent to the entire population of Portland, Ore.

It’s perhaps not surprising that the heart is so vulnerable to damage. It’s arguably the hardest working tissue in the human body: one of the first organs to form in the womb, it must keep ticking, without end, for the rest of our lives. Astoundingly, though, the cells within it can’t easily divide and reproduce. If damage occurs to any of them, that’s it—the injured region of tissue won’t be able to repair itself. Instead, the undamaged parts of the organ will limp along as best as they can until the bitter end.

The Quest for a Heart Attack Cure (1)

“Once it’s damaged, heart tissue is basically gone forever. You’re just going to have to make do for the rest of your life with the healthy tissue that remains,” says David Bishop, a materials scientist at Boston University College of Engineering.

Bishop is the director of CELL-MET, a National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center in Cellular Metamaterials led by BU, which is focused on developing treatments for cardiac disease. Together, Bishop and his colleagues are taking a bold new approach: growing viable heart tissue in the lab from scratch. If their efforts are successful, he says, the team will be able to create small patches of cardiac muscle that could be transplanted directly into patients’ hearts, effectively mending the damaged areas of the organ.

This method would be an entirely novel way to reverse heart disease, says Bishop, an ENG professor and head of materials science and engineering. “If you break your leg, your doctor will talk about fixing you up as good as new. If you have a heart attack, though, you’ll never hear those words, because right now there isn’t any way to fix that damage,” he says. “Our dream is to build a cure for heart attacks.”

(Video) CCC 2019: THE HF QUEST: DECODING THE EVIDENCE TO TRANSFORM HEART FAILURE OUTCOMES

Beating the Immune System, Promoting Healthy Tissue Growth

Creating implantable heart patches comes with a long list of challenges, beginning even at the most basic cellular level. Normally, when foreign tissue is grafted into a patient’s body, the immune system—especially without intervention from immunosuppressant drugs—will recognize its cells as invaders and attack them. If that happens, it will gradually kill the implant, and potentially take its host along with it.

To avoid this problem, CELL-MET researchers plan to use a patient’s own skin cells as a starting point. Through a complex biological process, the group can reprogram those cells, turning them into pluripotent stem cells—a sort of universal cell that can become almost any kind of tissue in the body. From there, the researchers can slowly coax the cells into becoming cardiomyocytes, the pulsating muscle cells that do the bulk of the heart’s work. Because they originated from parts of the patient’s own body, there’s almost no chance that the newly formed cells will trigger an immune response.

The procedures involved in making those cells are nothing new: scientists have already been doing it for more than a decade. Turning them into working tissue, however, is a different story. You can’t just plop heart cells into a dish—if you want them to grow into healthy cardiac muscle, they need to be anchored onto a structure with just the right physical properties.

“Heart cells are what we call mechanically active: they need to contract and generate force as they grow. The way they develop is greatly impacted by their mechanical environment,” says Christopher Chen, a BU William F. Warren Distinguished Professor and an ENG professor of biomedical engineering. “If that environment is too rigid, a cardiomyocyte won’t be able to contract. You need scaffolding that’s stiff enough to support the cells, but soft enough that it can crunch down when the cells pull on it.” With the right materials and structure to support them, adds Chen, who is also deputy director of CELL-MET, the cardiomyocytes can more easily mature, align themselves into strings of muscle, and start beating in unison.

The Quest for a Heart Attack Cure (2)

To provide this sort of environment, the CELL-MET team is making a fleet of tiny structures called scaffolds. Each one is only a few microns wide, and acts like a miniscule frame that nestles cells inside it. In order to make detailed structures this small, the team has turned to nanoscale 3D printing techniques originally developed for the semiconductor industry and recently commercialized by Nanoscribe, says Alice White, an ENG professor and chair of mechanical engineering.

White is leading a team testing several different materials and patterns to help enable healthy tissue growth—from a nest-like cluster of nanofibers to a more complex engineered honeycomb—and using them to help CELL-MET colleagues create early proof-of-concept heart tissue patches. At the moment, these experimental patches are just a few hundred cells thick, White says—one of the remaining hurdles is figuring out how to make them closer in scale to actual heart tissue, which can be on the order of one centimeter (roughly half an inch) thick.

“The main problem there is vasculature. To get thicker tissue, you need blood vessels and nutrients inside a block of cells. That’s where the difficulty level really starts to ramp up,” she adds. “That’s the next challenge we’ll be working on.”

Speeding Heart Drug Development and Testing

CELL-MET researchers are currently attempting two ways of creating blood vessels within their patches. One involves White’s carefully designed scaffolds; the other involves 3D printing cells themselves. Using a slurry of cardiomyocytes as a “living ink,” the group could potentially lay them down in layers that mimic the shape of living heart muscle, building tissue with hollow paths inside that could act as nascent blood vessels.

The Quest for a Heart Attack Cure (3)
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While existing thin patches of heart cells can’t be implanted, says Chen, they may still be useful for developing drug therapies. It’s fairly common for new drug candidates for a wide range of diseases to have major side effects on the heart—but the standard process of testing those substances in animals can sometimes obscure these effects until the drug reaches clinical trials.

“The problem is that the human heart can react very differently to a drug than animal heart cells,” Chen says. “It’s very possible to miss something. If you do, you’ve wasted a huge amount of resources developing a compound that ultimately turns out to be toxic to cardiac tissue.” Lab-made human heart tissue, however, might help researchers catch those issues early, making drug development faster and more accurate.

CELL-MET’s heart patches might also help scientists better understand rare heart diseases in the first place. By using skin cells taken from patients with congenital heart diseases, Chen says, the group could re-create the cardiac abnormalities that exist in their body, and test new treatments directly in a patch of diseased tissue.

Educating New Generations of Scientists

Even though implantable heart tissue is still a ways off, the fact that CELL-MET has made so much progress in five years is remarkable, says Bishop.

To tackle a problem as thorny as growing heart tissue, the center has had to bring together a massive team of researchers from 14 institutions around the globe. They specialize in many different disciplines—biology, electrical engineering, computer science, nanotechnology, chemistry, and the list goes on.

The Quest for a Heart Attack Cure (4)

(Video) Heart Health - سٹنٹ اور بائی پاس سے مکمل نجات | Lecture 47

“I think a lot of our success comes from the fact that we’re doing transdisciplinary research. We’ve all stopped thinking about our individual fields, and started thinking about solving a common problem”

A miniature living heart chamber replica developed by a multidisciplinary CELL-MET team. Photo by Jackie Ricciardi

So far, this approach seems to be working. In addition to their early heart tissue patches, those collaborations have already resulted in a living heart chamber replica, tiny heart valves on a chip, new nanoscale 3D printing methods, and other advances. It has also led to some offshoot discoveries, including a new contactless electrocardiogram that can sense the heart’s electric field using magnets, and is now being developed by a company spun out of Bishop’s lab. Each of these incremental steps represents a major scientific achievement, and may help scientists create other types of organ tissue in the future.

“I think a lot of our success comes from the fact that we’re doing transdisciplinary research. We’ve all stopped thinking about our individual fields, and started thinking about solving a common problem,” says Bishop. “In the old days, you would have called it a skunk works—you put 100 people with different expertise into a warehouse in Nevada, and together, they come up with an airplane nobody thought was possible. No one says, ‘I’m a wing person,’ or ‘I’m an engine person,’ you’re just all part of a team working on a common problem.”

To foster that kind of thinking in the future, CELL-MET is focusing a large part of its mission on educating new generations of students. Teaching others to think across disciplines, Bishop notes, may lead to new innovations that would otherwise be impossible to achieve. They’re starting not only with undergraduates, but also younger students, offering a range of education and outreach experiences, from preschool STEM programs to high school science lessons.

“Our work goes beyond just creating cardiac patches. We hope it will be a role model for how to do research going forward,” Bishop says. “Our education, diversity, and outreach programs—training the inclusive workforce of the future—are a vital part of that.Inclusion is also critically important to the cardiac tissues themselves—there are significant demographic differences that we study and need to consider in what we are building.”

Between its work in the lab and in the classroom, the center’s efforts might eventually prove pessimists everywhere wrong. Maybe, just maybe, a broken heart can be mended.

Other institutions involved in CELL-MET include Brown University, CNEA (Argentina), Columbia University, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), Fort Valley State University, Florida International University, Harvard Medical School, National University of Ireland, NHS College, North Carolina State University, Queen’s University Belfast (Northern Ireland), University of Michigan, and the Wyss Institute.

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FAQs

How does vitamin D affect the heart? ›

Research shows that chronic heart failure is often linked to vitamin D deficiency, and very low levels are associated with more negative health outcomes. In fact, low vitamin D is connected to a greater risk of death in those with heart failure, according to the American College of Cardiology.

How can I permanently cure a heart attack? ›

Unfortunately, there isn't a cure for coronary artery disease, and you can't reverse this condition once you're diagnosed. But you can make lifestyle changes to reduce your risk of developing further health problems, such as a heart attack.

Does vitamin D Help heart health? ›

Low levels of vitamin D have been linked to high blood pressure. And some research shows that taking a vitamin D pill can help to lower it, which lowers the risk of heart attacks and stroke. It's getting clearer that having enough vitamin D in your body can help your heart.

What level of LDL can cause heart attack? ›

There's a sharp increase in the risk for cardiovascular disease when total cholesterol levels are 240 mg/dl and above. Goals: Total cholesterol less than 200 mg/dl. LDL cholesterol should be less than 70 mg/dl for those with heart or blood vessel disease.

What is the best vitamin for your heart? ›

  • Vitamin D. There is some evidence that suggests there is a link between low blood levels of vitamin D and heart disease. ...
  • Folic Acid. Folic acid is a B vitamin. ...
  • Omega 3 Fatty Acid. ...
  • Magnesium.
Feb 5, 2022

What vitamin removes plaque from arteries? ›

Niacin, or Vitamin B3, is the best agent known to raise blood levels of HDL, which helps remove cholesterol deposits from the artery walls.

Can aspirin stop a heart attack? ›

Low doses of aspirin — such as 75 to 100 milligrams (mg), but most commonly 81 mg —can be effective at preventing heart attack or stroke.

What is the best position to sleep in for your heart? ›

Both sides are not equal when it comes to side sleeping, mainly because your body is not symmetrical. We recommend sleeping on the right side since it may be the key to a healthier heart. Studies suggest it reduces pressure on the heart and stabilizes your blood pressure and heart rate.

Can a heart attack go away? ›

Doctors have clot-busting drugs and other artery-opening procedures that can stop or reverse a heart attack, but they work best when given within the first hour after a heart attack starts. These drugs can limit the damage to the heart muscle by removing the blockage and restoring blood flow.

Who should not take vitamin D3? ›

Who should not take VITAMIN D3?
  • sarcoidosis.
  • high amount of phosphate in the blood.
  • high amount of calcium in the blood.
  • excessive amount of vitamin D in the body.
  • kidney stones.
  • decreased kidney function.

Is vitamin D and D3 the same? ›

There are two possible forms of vitamin D in the human body: vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. Both D2 and D3 are simply called “vitamin D,” so there's no meaningful difference between vitamin D3 and just vitamin D.

Can you take vitamin D3 and vitamin B12 together? ›

Interactions between your drugs

No interactions were found between Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D3.

Does drinking water lower cholesterol? ›

The bottom line: "No one has shown that drinking more water or fluid in general to improve day-to-day hydration status does anything to lower cholesterol levels and decrease your risk for cardiovascular disease," Sandon says.

Can you have a heart attack even if your cholesterol is good? ›

"Most major heart attacks occur in people with normal cholesterol, research finds: New statin guidelines are more likely to treat these people before their heart attacks." ScienceDaily.

How can I lower my LDL without medication? ›

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  1. Eat heart-healthy foods. A few changes in your diet can reduce cholesterol and improve your heart health: ...
  2. Exercise on most days of the week and increase your physical activity. Exercise can improve cholesterol. ...
  3. Quit smoking. ...
  4. Lose weight. ...
  5. Drink alcohol only in moderation.

Which exercise is best for heart patient? ›

Examples: Brisk walking, running, swimming, cycling, playing tennis and jumping rope. Heart-pumping aerobic exercise is the kind that doctors have in mind when they recommend at least 150 minutes per week of moderate activity.

Is chocolate good for the heart? ›

Dr. Krittanawong said: “Chocolate contains heart healthy nutrients such as flavonoids, methylxanthines, polyphenols and stearic acid which may reduce inflammation and increase good cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein or HDL cholesterol).”

Does vitamin D clog arteries? ›

People with diabetes often develop clogged arteries that cause heart disease, and new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis suggests that low vitamin D levels are to blame. In a study published Nov.

What foods unclog your arteries naturally? ›

Eat These 10 Foods to Cleanse Your Arteries
  • Asparagus. Asparagus is one of the best foods to cleanse your arteries. ...
  • Avocado. Avocado helps reduce the “bad” cholesterol and increase the “good cholesterol” that helps to clear the arteries. ...
  • Broccoli. ...
  • Fatty Fish. ...
  • Nuts. ...
  • Olive Oil. ...
  • Watermelon. ...
  • Turmeric.
Apr 26, 2016

Does apple cider vinegar clean arteries? ›

Apple cider vinegar won't clear clogged arteries. Clogged arteries are a major risk for coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, angina and cardiac events. Alternative health practitioners say that it's possible to unclog the arteries with vinegar.

Can too much vitamin D cause irregular heartbeat? ›

Some signs of heart complications associated with vitamin D toxicity include: an irregular heartbeat, which may be temporary or continual. drowsiness. high blood pressure.

Can lack of vitamin D cause heart problems? ›

Cross-sectional studies have reported that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of CVD, including hypertension, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease.

Can vitamin D cause clogged arteries? ›

But in patients with insufficient vitamin D, immune cells bind to blood vessels near the heart, then trap cholesterol to block those blood vessels. Low levels of vitamin D in people with diabetes appear to encourage cholesterol to build up in arteries, eventually blocking the flow of blood.

Can vitamin D supplements cause heart palpitations? ›

Vitamin D is another supplement that can cause heart palpitations when taken in high amounts. Indeed, a March 2018 review in ​Circulation​ found that having excess vitamin D in your system was linked to an increased risk for atrial fibrillation, a condition that causes an irregular and often rapid heartbeat.

CELL-MET, a National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center in Cellular Metamaterials led by Boston University, is focused on developing treatments for cardiac disease. CELL-MET researchers are taking a bold new approach: growing viable heart tissue in the lab from scratch. If their efforts are successful, the team will be able to create small patches of cardiac muscle that could be transplanted directly into patients’ hearts, effectively mending the damaged areas of the organ.

A Boston University-led team is engineering small patches of cardiac muscle that could repair the heart, treat heart disease, and speed drug development. Bishop is the director of CELL-MET , a National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center in Cellular Metamaterials led by BU, which is focused on developing treatments for cardiac disease.. If their efforts are successful, he says, the team will be able to create small patches of cardiac muscle that could be transplanted directly into patients’ hearts, effectively mending the damaged areas of the organ.. Turning them into working tissue, however, is a different story.. Using a slurry of cardiomyocytes as a “living ink,” the group could potentially lay them down in layers that mimic the shape of living heart muscle, building tissue with hollow paths inside that could act as nascent blood vessels.. By using skin cells taken from patients with congenital heart diseases, Chen says, the group could recreate the cardiac abnormalities that exist in their body, and test new treatments directly in a patch of diseased tissue.. “Our work goes beyond just creating cardiac patches.

A BU-led team is engineering small patches of cardiac muscle that could repair the heart, treat heart disease, and speed drug development

If their efforts are successful, he says, the team will be able to create small patches of cardiac muscle that could be transplanted directly into patients’ hearts, effectively mending the damaged areas of the organ.. From there, the researchers can slowly coax the cells into becoming cardiomyocytes, the pulsating muscle cells that do the bulk of the heart’s work.. You need scaffolding that’s stiff enough to support the cells, but soft enough that it can crunch down when the cells pull on it.” With the right materials and structure to support them, adds Chen, who is also deputy director of CELL-MET, the cardiomyocytes can more easily mature, align themselves into strings of muscle, and start beating in unison.. Alice White, an ENG professor, says one of the next big challenges is making heart patches closer in scale to actual heart tissue.. White is leading a team testing several different materials and patterns to help enable healthy tissue growth—from a nest-like cluster of nanofibers to a more complex engineered honeycomb—and using them to help CELL-MET colleagues create early proof-of-concept heart tissue patches.. At the moment, these experimental patches are just a few hundred cells thick, White says—one of the remaining hurdles is figuring out how to make them closer in scale to actual heart tissue, which can be on the order of one centimeter (roughly half an inch) thick.. Lab-made heart tissue could make drug development faster and more accurate, according to Christopher Chen, a BU William F. Warren Distinguished Professor.. Photo courtesy of BU Photography; images by vectortatu and Eoneren via iStockWhile existing thin patches of heart cells can’t be implanted, says Chen, they may still be useful for developing drug therapies.. “The problem is that the human heart can react very differently to a drug than animal heart cells,” Chen says.. If you do, you’ve wasted a huge amount of resources developing a compound that ultimately turns out to be toxic to cardiac tissue.” Lab-made human heart tissue, however, might help researchers catch those issues early, making drug development faster and more accurate.. CELL-MET’s heart patches might also help scientists better understand rare heart diseases in the first place.. By using skin cells taken from patients with congenital heart diseases, Chen says, the group could re-create the cardiac abnormalities that exist in their body, and test new treatments directly in a patch of diseased tissue.. Even though implantable heart tissue is still a ways off, the fact that CELL-MET has made so much progress in five years is remarkable, says Bishop.. To tackle a problem as thorny as growing heart tissue, the center has had to bring together a massive team of researchers from 14 institutions around the globe.. In addition to their early heart tissue patches, those collaborations have already resulted in a living heart chamber replica, tiny heart valves on a chip, new nanoscale 3D printing methods, and other advances.

CELL-MET, a National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center in Cellular Metamaterials led by Boston University, is focused on developing treatments for cardiac disease. CELL-MET researchers are taking a bold new approach: growing viable heart tissue in the lab from scratch. If their efforts are successful, the team will be able to create small patches of cardiac muscle that could be transplanted directly into patients’ hearts, effectively mending the damaged areas of the organ.

A Boston University-led team is engineering small patches of cardiac muscle that could repair the heart, treat heart disease, and speed drug development. If their efforts are successful, he says, the team will be able to create small patches of cardiac muscle that could be transplanted directly into patients’ hearts, effectively mending the damaged areas of the organ.. From there, the researchers can slowly coax the cells into becoming cardiomyocytes, the pulsating muscle cells that do the bulk of the heart’s work.. You need scaffolding that’s stiff enough to support the cells, but soft enough that it can crunch down when the cells pull on it.” With the right materials and structure to support them, adds Chen, who is also deputy director of CELL-MET, the cardiomyocytes can more easily mature, align themselves into strings of muscle, and start beating in unison.. White is leading a team testing several different materials and patterns to help enable healthy tissue growth—from a nest-like cluster of nanofibers to a more complex engineered honeycomb—and using them to help CELL-MET colleagues create early proof-of-concept heart tissue patches.. At the moment, these experimental patches are just a few hundred cells thick, White says—one of the remaining hurdles is figuring out how to make them closer in scale to actual heart tissue, which can be on the order of one centimeter (roughly half an inch) thick.. “The problem is that the human heart can react very differently to a drug than animal heart cells,” Chen says.. If you do, you’ve wasted a huge amount of resources developing a compound that ultimately turns out to be toxic to cardiac tissue.” Lab-made human heart tissue, however, might help researchers catch those issues early, making drug development faster and more accurate.. CELL-MET’s heart patches might also help scientists better understand rare heart diseases in the first place.. By using skin cells taken from patients with congenital heart diseases, Chen says, the group could recreate the cardiac abnormalities that exist in their body, and test new treatments directly in a patch of diseased tissue.. In addition to their early heart tissue patches, those collaborations have already resulted in a living heart chamber replica, tiny heart valves on a chip, new nanoscale 3D printing methods, and other advances.. Other institutions involved in CELL-MET include Brown University, CNEA (Argentina), Columbia University, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), Fort Valley State University, Florida International University, Harvard Medical School, National University of Ireland, NHS College, North Carolina State University, Queen’s University Belfast (Northern Ireland), University of Michigan, and the Wyss Institute.

Heart disease is one of the world’s most deadly and insidious killers. In the United States alone, it causes one in every four deaths

From there, the researchers can slowly coax the cells into becoming cardiomyocytes, the pulsating muscle cells that do the bulk of the heart’s work.. You need scaffolding that’s stiff enough to support the cells, but soft enough that it can crunch down when the cells pull on it.” With the right materials and structure to support them, adds Chen, who is also deputy director of CELL-MET, the cardiomyocytes can more easily mature, align themselves into strings of muscle, and start beating in unison.. White is leading a team testing several different materials and patterns to help enable healthy tissue growth-from a nest-like cluster of nanofibers to a more complex engineered honeycomb-and using them to help CELL-MET colleagues create early proof-of-concept heart tissue patches.. At the moment, these experimental patches are just a few hundred cells thick, White says-one of the remaining hurdles is figuring out how to make them closer in scale to actual heart tissue, which can be on the order of one centimeter (roughly half an inch) thick.. “The problem is that the human heart can react very differently to a drug than animal heart cells,” Chen says.. If you do, you’ve wasted a huge amount of resources developing a compound that ultimately turns out to be toxic to cardiac tissue.” Lab-made human heart tissue, however, might help researchers catch those issues early, making drug development faster and more accurate.. CELL-MET’s heart patches might also help scientists better understand rare heart diseases in the first place.. By using skin cells taken from patients with congenital heart diseases, Chen says, the group could recreate the cardiac abnormalities that exist in their body, and test new treatments directly in a patch of diseased tissue.. In addition to their early heart tissue patches, those collaborations have already resulted in a living heart chamber replica, tiny heart valves on a chip, new nanoscale 3D printing methods, and other advances.

The American Heart Association explains heart attack treatment including medication, surgery, procedures and implantable devices.

The type of heart attack (also called myocardial infarction, or MI) you experienced determines the treatments that your medical team will recommend.. A heart attack occurs when a blockage in one or more coronary arteries reduces or stops blood flow to the heart, which starves part of the heart muscle of oxygen.. Hospitals commonly use techniques to restore blood flow to part of the heart muscle damaged during a heart attack:. At a hospital equipped to administer PCI, you would likely be sent to a department that specializes in cardiac catheterization, sometimes called a “cath lab.” There, a diagnostic angiogram can examine blood flow to your heart and reveal how well your heart is pumping.. You might be given an angiography (an imaging technique used to see inside your arteries, veins and heart chambers), possibly followed by an invasive procedure called revascularization to restore blood circulation in your heart.. The early invasive strategy will start with the use of various drugs (antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants) to inhibit blood clot formation, but might also proceed to a medical therapy, a PCI with stenting or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), followed by certain types of post-hospital care.. Bypass surgery: Treats blocked heart arteries by creating new passages for blood to flow to your heart muscle.. Heart transplant: Removes a diseased heart and replaces it with a donated healthy human heart.. Radiofrequency ablation: A catheter with an electrode at its tip is guided through the veins to the heart muscle to destroy carefully selected heart muscle cells in a very small area.. Angiotensin II receptor blocker: Rather than lowering levels of angiotensin II (as ACE inhibitors do) angiotensin II receptor blockers prevent this chemical from having any effects on the heart and blood vessels.. That improves artery opening and blood flow, reduces sodium (salt) retention and decreases strain on the heart.. Beta blocker: Decreases the heart rate and cardiac output, which lowers blood pressure and makes the heart beat more slowly, with less force.. Vasodilator: Relaxes blood vessels and increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart while reducing its workload.. Some patients who have heart attacks, that have stents placed in their coronary arteries, or undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) are treated with two types of antiplatelet agents at the same time to prevent blood clotting.. If you had a heart attack and a coronary artery stent placed, or you are being treated with medical therapy (no stent, clot buster or surgery) , in addition to aspirin, you should also be on a P2Y 12 inhibitor for 6-12 months.

The American Heart Association explains heart attack treatment including medication, surgery, procedures and implantable devices.

Hospitals commonly use techniques to restore blood flow to part of the heart muscle damaged during a heart attack:. If the hospital determines you had an NSTEMI heart attack, doctors typically use one of two treatment strategies.. Heart attack treatment involves a variety of drugs.. Beta blocker: Decreases the heart rate and cardiac output, which lowers blood pressure and makes the heart beat more slowly, with less force.. Some patients who have heart attacks, that have stents placed in their coronary arteries, or undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) are treated with two types of antiplatelet agents at the same time to prevent blood clotting.

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